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CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

INTRODUCTION Chronic Degenerative disease characterised by replacement of normal liver tissue by diffuse fibrosis that disputes the structure and function of the liver. cirrhosis is a late stage of scaring where scar tissue gradually replace healthy liver cells due to many condition such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism etc. CAUSE Chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis B, …

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RENAL FAILURE

RENAL FAILURE

DEFINATION it is the impairment of renal function over days or week which often results in increase plasma urea , creatinine , and oliguria. it may be reversible or irreversible. if it is reversible than it is called as acute renal failure. if it is irreversible than it is called as chronic renal failure. CLASSIFICATION …

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GLOMERULO NEPHRITIS

GLOMERULO NEPHRITIS

INTRODUCTION glomerulo nephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli. glomeruli remove excess fluid , electrolytes and waste from your blood stream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic). Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation …

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PEPTIC ULCER

PEPTIC ULCER

INTRODUCTION Peptic ulcer is defined as break in the continuity of the mucus membrane of GI tract due to excess secretion of acid. most common causative factor is Helicobacter pylori infection TWO TYPES ACCORDING TO SITE, Gastric ulcer – stomach Duodenal ulcer – duodenum PREVALENCE Higher in developing countries. Decrease in western countries, due to …

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HYPERTHYROIDISM

HYPERTHYROIDISM

(EXOPTHALAMIC GOITER / THYROTOXICOSIS) #HYPERTHYROIDISM INTRODUCTION Hyperthyroidism is hyper-reactivity of the thyroid gland which sustained increase in synthesis and release of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism is a set of disorders that involve excess synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone (T3 & T4) which lead the hyper-metabolic condition of thyrotoxicosis. Thyrotoxicosis – physiological effects or clinical syndrome …

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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

INTRODUCTION A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than just your joints. In some people, the condition can damage a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart and blood vessels. rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system mistakenly …

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OSTEOARTHRITIS

OSTEOARTHRITIS

INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis is an abnormality of synovial joints characterized by softening , splitting , and fragmentation of articular cartilage not attributable to direct contact with inflammatory tissue. This is usually accompanied by subchondral sclerosis and bone cysts , joints space narrowing and bony overgrowth at tissue joint margins (osteophytes). osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the …

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SCHIZOPHRENIA

SCHIZOPHRENIA

INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning. People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious complications develop and may help improve the …

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OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER(OCD)

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER(OCD)

INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. You may try to ignore or stop your obsessions, but that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to …

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OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER(OCD)

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER(OCD)

INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. You may try to ignore or stop your obsessions, but that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to …

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